U6+ Consortium of African Universities Proceedings (Maiden Edition) 2019 (U6CAU Proceedings)


The pioneer Proceedings of the U6 Consortium of African Universities (U6CAU) is an international journal that promotes integration between the collaborating universities in Africa. The articles in this journal are peer- reviewed and the acceptance criteria for all papers are based on the quality and originality of the research and its significance to the African environment. The journal publishes original research, scientific reviews, letters and keynote speeches.

The U6CAU JOURNAL/PROCEEDINGS consist of two parts:

Part A: Science, Engineering and Technology (SET)

Part B: Arts, Education and Humanities (AEH).



Prof. Francis Emile Asuquo JP

Desk Officer

U6+ Consortium of African Universities Secretariat

Senate Chamber Building

University of Calabar

PMB 1115, Calabar


Email: [email protected]; Phone: +234 806 360 8143


Associate Editors

Dr. Godwin Amu Otogo

Dr. Ekaete Francis Asuquo


Editorial Advisory Board

Prof. Peter Okafor & Prof. A. Obaleye – Physical Sciences

Prof. Joseph Kioko & Dr. Godwin Otogo  – Life Sciences/ Biological Sciences

Prof. Yemi Adepoju  & Prof. Patrick Ebong – Medical Sciences
Prof. Kazeem Gbolagade  & Prof. Anthony Akpan  – Information Communications Technology

Dr. Abdulkareem  Kamara & Prof. Eno Grace Nta – Arts & Humanities

Prof.  Learnmore Kambizi & Prof. Uche Amalu  – Agric. and Food Sc.

Prof. Francis Asuquo &  Prof. Denis Aheto - Blue Economy/Marine Sciences

Prof. Eric Nyarko-Samson & Prof. I. Umoinyang  – Education

Prof. Leo Daniel & Dr. Fina Faithpraise - Engineering


Publishing Information

All rights reserved, Reproduction of materials in any form from the U6CAU without the publishers’ permission is strictly prohibited.U6CAU is published by the University of Calabar Press in collaboration with Greenlab International Scientific(GIS) Publishers, Calabar.


Copyright @ Unical Press/GIS / U6CAU Publications 2019

List of Research articles in this issue of U6CAU JOURNAL/PROCEEDINGS Volume 1 Number 1, 2019

Part A: Science, Engineering and Technology